How to Build a GF Flour Blend From Scratch

When you are first diagnosed with celiac or gluten-intolerance and transition to gluten-free baking and cooking, it is easiest to use a commercially available blend such as those from King Arthur Flour, Bob’s Red Mill, Gluten Free Pantry, Cup4Cup, or Authentic Foods. They are designed to be swapped 1 for 1 for the all-purpose flour in any regular recipe.

Once you are more comfortable with gluten-free baking and the various flours available to work with, you can use these charts to concoct your own special blends. This is where you can stretch your creativity and customize the flours to create the flavors and textures you want.

How to Build a Gluten-Free Flour Blend

From Gluten-Free Makeovers by Beth Hillson

To use this chart, find the flour you wish to change and replace it with another one from the same list. The properties, while not identical, will be similar and serve the same function in building the structure in a particular recipe.

Neutral (light) Flours

High Protein Flours

High Fiber Flours

Stabilizers – Adds texture / moisture



Brown Rice Flour

Almond Flour

Almond Flour

Coconut Flour *

Arrowroot Flour

Agar Powder

Corn Flour

Amaranth Flour

Amaranth Flour




Sorghum Flour

Bean Flours

Bean Flours

Flax Seed Meal

Kuzu Starch

Gelatin Powder

Sweet Rice Flour

Buckwheat Flour

Buckwheat Flour

Oat Bran

Potato Starch

Guar Gum

White Rice Flour

Chickpea Flour

Chickpea Flour

Potato Flour

Sweet Potato Flour

Locust Bean Gum


Millet Flour

Corn Flour

Rice Bran

Tapioca Starch

Xanthan Gum


Montina Flour

Mesquite Flour


Oat Flour

Montina Flour


Quinoa Flour

Soy Flour

* Coconut flour


Sorghum Flour


actually absorbs


Soy Flour


liquids in baked


Teff Flour




Individual Flour Characteristics

From Gluten-Free Makeovers by Beth Hillson



Percentage to Use



Almond Flour

Sweet, nutty


High in protein, fiber, fat

Refrigerated or frozen


Mildly nutty

20 to 25% in baking

High in protein, nutrients



Robust flavor, use with other flours

Up to 1 cup per recipe; less in subtle recipes

High in protein, fiber,



Chestnut Flour

Nutty, earthy

Up to 25% total flour

Low in protein, fiber

Refrigerated or frozen

Coconut Flour

Subtle, sweet, coconut

Up to 15% in baked goods

Low-Carb, high-fiber


Corn Flour

Finely ground corn


Use in breads, cakes, etc.



Coarsely ground corn


Use in cornbread, breading, polenta



Fine white powder


Lightens texture; thickens sauces



Modified tapioca/starch

If used in place of tapioca, reduce amt of Expandex by 1 to 2 tbsp & gum by 1/2 to 1 tsp


Flax Seed/Meal

Only use ground not whole

Use 2 to 3 tbsp per recipe

High in fiber, Omega-3’s

Refrigerated or frozen

Legume (Bean) Flours

Can be strongly flavored; best in savory foods

No more than 25% per recipe; Quinoa flour is a good substitute

Best when used with brown sugar, molasses, chocolate, spices


Mesquite Flour

Pleasantly sweet

Up to 25% per recipe

Best in pancakes, brownies & gingerbread



Mild, sweet, nutty, distinctive flavor

No more than 25% in any flour blend

Nutrient rich, high-protein, high-fiber



Wheat-like flavor

Up to 30% in flour blend

High protein, fiber


Oats/Oat Flour


Use only GF oats

Add taste, texture, and structure


Potato Flour

Replaces xanthan or guar

Add 2 to 4 tbsp per recipe; reduce or eliminate gums

High in fiber, protein

Good for soft, chewy mouthfeel

Potato Starch


Use 1:1 with cornstarch

Best when used with eggs

Whisk before using

Quinoa Flour

Delicate, nutty flavor similar to wild rice

Use up to 30% of flour blend

Complete protein


Rice Flour

Varies from fine to medium to coarse textures

Best when blended with other flours

Brown is higher fiber, nutrients


Sorghum Flour

Slightly sweet taste

Use no more than 30% in any flour blend

High in fiber, protein


Teff Flour, preferably light

Mild nutty flavor


High in calcium, protein, and fiber

Combined with Montina, tastes like whole wheat

Tapioca Starch


Good in breads, tortillas, and pasta


Arrowroot Starch

Pleasant tasting/versatile


Good for breads & bagels


Sweet Potato Starch

Yellow-orange hue in final baked goods


Best in recipes containing chocolate, molasses and spices


Custom Flour Blends

From Gluten-Free Makeovers by Beth Hillson


Basic Blend

Cake & Pastry Flour

Self-Rising Flour

Bread Flour #1

All-Purpose Breads

Bread Flour #2

Hi-Protein Breads

Rice Flour

2-3/4 cups (15.4 oz)

1 cup white rice flour (5.4 oz)

1-1/4 cups white rice flour (6.5 oz)

1-1/4 cups white (6.5 oz) or 5.5 oz brown

2 cups brown rice flour (8.5 oz)

Bean Flours


2-1/4 cups chickpea (9.5 oz), quinoa flour (9.1 oz), or other bean flour

Corn or Potato Starch

1-1/4 cups (8 oz)

3/4 cup (3.5 oz)

3/4 cup cornstarch (3.5 oz) or 4 oz potato starch

3/4 cup cornstarch (3.5 oz) or tapioca starch (3.2 oz)

2 cups cornstarch (9.6 oz) or potato starch (11.2 oz)

Tapioca Starch/Flour

1/3 cup (1.5 oz)


1/4 cup (1.1 oz)


2 cups + 2 tbsp

(9.3 oz)

Amaranth Flour


3/4 cup (3 oz)

1/2 cup (2 oz)


Sweet White Sorghum Flour


1 cup (4 oz)

1 cup (4 oz)

1-1/4 cups (5.25 oz)


Xanthan or Guar Gum


1-1/2 tsp

2 tsp Xanthan

3 tsp Xanthan

2 tbsp + 2 tsp Xanthan



1/2 tsp

1-1/2 tsp

1 tsp

3 tsp

Baking Powder


2 tbsp


Light Brown Sugar


1/2 cup packed (2.8 oz)

Comparative Measurements of Gluten-Free Flours

From Suite

For every 1 cup of regular all-purpose flour in recipes, you can substitute:

  • Amaranth = 1 cup
  • Bean Flour = 1 cup
  • Corn Flour = 1 cup
  • Cornmeal = 3/4 cup
  • Millet Flour = 1 cup
  • Finely Ground Nuts = 1/2 cup
  • Oat Flour = 1-1/3 cups
  • Potato Flour = 5/8 cup
  • Potato Starch = 3/4 cup
  • Quinoa Flour = 1 cup
  • White or Brown Rice Flour = 7/8 cup
  • Sorghum Flour = 1 cup
  • Soy Flour = 3/4 cup
  • Sweet Rice Flour = 7/8 cup
  • Tapioca Flour/Starch = 1 cup
  • Teff Flour = 7/8 cup

Note: When using almond or hazelnut meal/flour, always combine it with a GF-AP blend. For 2-1/2 cups wheat flour in a recipe, substitute 1/2 cup almond or hazelnut meal for one of the cups and 1-1/2 cups GF-AP flour for the remaining flour. Almond flour is particularly good in pie crusts, pastries, cookies and sweet breads.