How to Build a GF Flour Blend From Scratch


When you are first diagnosed with celiac or gluten-intolerance and transition to gluten-free baking and cooking, it is easiest to use a commercially available blend such as those from King Arthur Flour, Bob’s Red Mill, Gluten Free Pantry, Cup4Cup, or Authentic Foods. They are designed to be swapped 1 for 1 for the all-purpose flour in any regular recipe.

Once you are more comfortable with gluten-free baking and the various flours available to work with, you can use these charts to concoct your own special blends. This is where you can stretch your creativity and customize the flours to create the flavors and textures you want.

 

How to Build a Gluten-Free Flour Blend

From Gluten-Free Makeovers by Beth Hillson

 

To use this chart, find the flour you wish to change and replace it with another one from the same list. The properties, while not identical, will be similar and serve the same function in building the structure in a particular recipe.

Neutral (light) Flours

High Protein Flours

High Fiber Flours

Stabilizers – Adds texture / moisture

Starches

Gums

Brown Rice Flour

Almond Flour

Almond Flour

Coconut Flour *

Arrowroot Flour

Agar Powder

Corn Flour

Amaranth Flour

Amaranth Flour

Expandex

Cornstarch

Carrageenan

Sorghum Flour

Bean Flours

Bean Flours

Flax Seed Meal

Kuzu Starch

Gelatin Powder

Sweet Rice Flour

Buckwheat Flour

Buckwheat Flour

Oat Bran

Potato Starch

Guar Gum

White Rice Flour

Chickpea Flour

Chickpea Flour

Potato Flour

Sweet Potato Flour

Locust Bean Gum

 

Millet Flour

Corn Flour

Rice Bran

Tapioca Starch

Xanthan Gum

 

Montina Flour

Mesquite Flour

 

 

 

 

Oat Flour

Montina Flour

 

 

 

 

Quinoa Flour

Soy Flour

* Coconut flour

 

 

 

Sorghum Flour

 

actually absorbs

 

 

 

Soy Flour

 

liquids in baked

 

 

 

Teff Flour

 

goods.

 

 

 

 

Individual Flour Characteristics

From Gluten-Free Makeovers by Beth Hillson

Flour

Flavor

Percentage to Use

Contents

Storage

Almond Flour

Sweet, nutty

 

High in protein, fiber, fat

Refrigerated or frozen

Amaranth

Mildly nutty

20 to 25% in baking

High in protein, nutrients

 

Buckwheat

Robust flavor, use with other flours

Up to 1 cup per recipe; less in subtle recipes

High in protein, fiber,

B-Vitamins

 

Chestnut Flour

Nutty, earthy

Up to 25% total flour

Low in protein, fiber

Refrigerated or frozen

Coconut Flour

Subtle, sweet, coconut

Up to 15% in baked goods

Low-Carb, high-fiber

 

Corn Flour

Finely ground corn

 

Use in breads, cakes, etc.

 

Cornmeal

Coarsely ground corn

 

Use in cornbread, breading, polenta

 

Cornstarch

Fine white powder

 

Lightens texture; thickens sauces

 

Expandex

Modified tapioca/starch

If used in place of tapioca, reduce amt of Expandex by 1 to 2 tbsp & gum by 1/2 to 1 tsp

 

 

Flax Seed/Meal

Only use ground not whole

Use 2 to 3 tbsp per recipe

High in fiber, Omega-3’s

Refrigerated or frozen

Legume (Bean) Flours

Can be strongly flavored; best in savory foods

No more than 25% per recipe; Quinoa flour is a good substitute

Best when used with brown sugar, molasses, chocolate, spices

 

Mesquite Flour

Pleasantly sweet

Up to 25% per recipe

Best in pancakes, brownies & gingerbread

 

Millet

Mild, sweet, nutty, distinctive flavor

No more than 25% in any flour blend

Nutrient rich, high-protein, high-fiber

 

Montina

Wheat-like flavor

Up to 30% in flour blend

High protein, fiber

 

Oats/Oat Flour

 

Use only GF oats

Add taste, texture, and structure

 

Potato Flour

Replaces xanthan or guar

Add 2 to 4 tbsp per recipe; reduce or eliminate gums

High in fiber, protein

Good for soft, chewy mouthfeel

Potato Starch

 

Use 1:1 with cornstarch

Best when used with eggs

Whisk before using

Quinoa Flour

Delicate, nutty flavor similar to wild rice

Use up to 30% of flour blend

Complete protein

 

Rice Flour

Varies from fine to medium to coarse textures

Best when blended with other flours

Brown is higher fiber, nutrients

 

Sorghum Flour

Slightly sweet taste

Use no more than 30% in any flour blend

High in fiber, protein

 

Teff Flour, preferably light

Mild nutty flavor

 

High in calcium, protein, and fiber

Combined with Montina, tastes like whole wheat

Tapioca Starch

 

 

Good in breads, tortillas, and pasta

 

Arrowroot Starch

Pleasant tasting/versatile

 

Good for breads & bagels

 

Sweet Potato Starch

Yellow-orange hue in final baked goods

 

Best in recipes containing chocolate, molasses and spices

 

 

 

Custom Flour Blends

From Gluten-Free Makeovers by Beth Hillson

Ingredient

Basic Blend

Cake & Pastry Flour

Self-Rising Flour

Bread Flour #1

All-Purpose Breads

Bread Flour #2

Hi-Protein Breads

Rice Flour

2-3/4 cups (15.4 oz)

1 cup white rice flour (5.4 oz)

1-1/4 cups white rice flour (6.5 oz)

1-1/4 cups white (6.5 oz) or 5.5 oz brown

2 cups brown rice flour (8.5 oz)

Bean Flours

 

 

 

 

2-1/4 cups chickpea (9.5 oz), quinoa flour (9.1 oz), or other bean flour

Corn or Potato Starch

1-1/4 cups (8 oz)

3/4 cup (3.5 oz)

3/4 cup cornstarch (3.5 oz) or 4 oz potato starch

3/4 cup cornstarch (3.5 oz) or tapioca starch (3.2 oz)

2 cups cornstarch (9.6 oz) or potato starch (11.2 oz)

Tapioca Starch/Flour

1/3 cup (1.5 oz)

 

1/4 cup (1.1 oz)

 

2 cups + 2 tbsp

(9.3 oz)

Amaranth Flour

 

 

3/4 cup (3 oz)

1/2 cup (2 oz)

 

Sweet White Sorghum Flour

 

1 cup (4 oz)

1 cup (4 oz)

1-1/4 cups (5.25 oz)

 

Xanthan or Guar Gum

 

1-1/2 tsp

2 tsp Xanthan

3 tsp Xanthan

2 tbsp + 2 tsp Xanthan

Salt

 

1/2 tsp

1-1/2 tsp

1 tsp

3 tsp

Baking Powder

 

 

2 tbsp

 

 

Light Brown Sugar

 

 

 

 

1/2 cup packed (2.8 oz)

 

Comparative Measurements of Gluten-Free Flours

From Suite 101.com

For every 1 cup of regular all-purpose flour in recipes, you can substitute:

Amaranth = 1 cup

Bean Flours = 1 cup

Corn Flour = 1 cup

Cornmeal = 3/4 cup

Millet Flour = 1 cup

Finely Ground Nuts (almond, hazelnut) = 1/2 cup

Oat Flour = 1-1/3 cups

Potato Flour = 5/8 cup

Potato Starch = 3/4 cup

Quinoa Flour = 1 cup

White or Brown Rice Flour = 7/8 cup

Sorghum Flour = 1 cup

Soy Flour = 3/4 cup

Sweet Rice Flour = 7/8 cup

Tapioca Flour/Starch = 1 cup

Teff Flour = 7/8 cup

 

Note: When using almond or hazelnut meal/flour, always combine it with a GF-AP blend. For 2-1/2 cups wheat flour in a recipe, substitute 1/2 cup almond or hazelnut meal for one of the cups and 1-1/2 cups GF-AP flour for the remaining flour. Almond flour is particularly good in pie crusts, pastries, cookies and sweet breads.